Beijing jade carving arts
Beijing jade carving has a long history, as early as the Neolithic "cavemen", to use as a jade ornament of women. After long years, ancient multiply, gradually formed exquisite, sleek jade carving. Today's Beijing is the former palace jade carving jade carving inherit and carry forward.
Beijing jade carving art has a long history, profound skills, the amount of material drawn on the production, because of material Shi Yi, Yu Concealer is an important rule of Zhuoyu. Craftsmen use natural shape, color, texture, texture and transparency of jade, create a lot of talent, wit and natural treasures. Jade production process, summarized as "proposed, painted, cut, light" several stages. Performance practices are: sculpture in the round, relief, Carved, line carving. Beijing jade many categories, namely: utensils, figures, flowers, birds, bonsai, jewelry and so on.
- jade crafts -
Beijing jade carving of the development process
In the long process of development in jade, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Jade began to form a fixed genre, namely for South-North Tamatsukuri. South jade as Suzhou, Yangzhou as the center, north to Beijing as the center for jade. Qing Dynasty, a large number of craftsmen came to Beijing for South - to form a long set of two, into the south, Beijing Jade North Jade for beauty.
Improve its development, mainly in the reign of Emperor Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, especially the Qianlong reign of 60 years, the variety, the sheer number of complex work style, Jade carving of exquisite artistry have reached an unprecedented level. This was reflected in the large carved jade. Qianlong twenty-eight to thirty-four years (1763-1769), made of corn grind for the Office was to cut weight 5000 kg cloud dragon king urn, this is the first attempt to grind Zhuo Qing Dynasty jade giant for followed by manufacturing large jade accumulated experience. After that, the Qianlong period, giant jade works "off Mountain Streams Yushan", "Da Yu Yushan map" and other jade giant system has successively produced. To have such a huge system, it is important to have objective conditions, and that is the source of jade broader. Qing Emperor Qianlong two decades and 24 years after the pacification of the Junggar and Huibu rebellion, the Qing government to stabilize the authority in the area, including control of the origin of jade. At that time the mining of jade jade, as a tribute to spring and twice a year turned over official. Hong Li poem wrote: "Khotan jade mining complex spring and autumn as the positive Wong Fu lost the state."
Gong Yu number increased year by year, to the Qianlong three years later, as many as twenty-three kilograms per year. Including Yeerqiang jade. The Jade reserves, large volume, which provides a starting material for the large carved jade. According to Qing Office was file reads: "Qianlong forty-one years (1776) beginning June 9, would like to play: Now to the king six, five extremely heavy - block by wishful estimate museum material, like painting was laid on the table do a jade urn. "others such as" Da Yu Yushan map "is also weighing over jin," Huichang Guro map Yushan "weight of about 5,000 pounds," Dan Taiwan Yushan Chunxiao map "and" off Yushan mountain Streams "all heavy weight several hundred pounds. These huge jade material were collected from Yeerqiang secret Leta mountain, which makes large jade carving craftsmen who made it possible.
Zhuo Yu Qing material requirements for texture and more stringent. The main use of Hotan and Yarkand region produced high-quality jade material, mainly jade, jasper, jade, Huang Yu, black jade based. But suet jade is still the best, artisans because of material Shi Yi, created many enduring must make. It is worth mentioning that the wrong white gold inlay gemstone bowl of patterns modeled on the "Hindustan jade" style, but still has the shape and production techniques of traditional Chinese characteristics. The difference is that is that the stone setting techniques, the former showed the wrong gold contour fine gems around, and almost face Qi Yu surface. Then exhibited gold jewel edge dislocation projections contour generally thicker, than the surface Yu. Visible, the Qing Dynasty Jade carving craft culture draws not only outside, but also the innovation and improvement wrong gold inlay technology has reached a very high level.
- Beijing jade production techniques Features -
Ancient jade techniques, from making stone tools. Cut, polish, cut, grind jade is the process used by the program. Cut, i.e. material solution, jade use solution added solution toothless saw Yu sand, it will be expected to separate; mortar dipped in consultation with a circular saw Shuji; cut, the pattern is carved, drilled with a drill, cones and other tools; mill, is the last process, gourd skin with fine wood, leather dip pearl mortar, to be polished, will be issued creamy jade-like luster. This jade technology, has mastered the vet craftsmen. Today's jade carving techniques, or the use of roughly cut, polish, cut, grind four methods. Qin said Zhuo Yu, Yu Song-person grind, grind Zhuo said today.
Sang Ok: from the piece of rough diamonds, to make a jade, the first is a "Sang Ok" design. "Phase" is both "see", after watching pondering thinking, in order to determine the intrinsic quality of jade, and the pros and cons of appearance, conception and then determine what the theme of the works.
Draw live: it is based on the concept of the image, with pen and ink lines on the jade material, put it vividly draw (draw) out. "Draw live", it is a key part in Zhuoyu process.
Wondering: refers to the specific production of jade. Production of jade jargon called "pondering." Because extremely hard jade, iron disc must be - as a tool thallium, silicon carbide and water as the medium, through the gate chisel, punching, pressing, hook, cis other processes, bit by bit from pondering. It is engraved with the "knife live" completely different. Jade pondering, is a very careful and precise skills, master pondering jade pieces, to achieve "small in the big", "significant weight to light" artistic effect.
Milling: also known as "light", "polished." Rough area with shellac, wood, gourd, copper and thallium sub leather, pondering the jade pieces, milled flat. And by applying some chemical powder such as chromium oxide as dielectric material, revealing that the member Yu smooth jade, crystal and warm nature.
Hook Compaction: Han Dynasty Jade carving famous techniques. Yu described in the literature, it sculptured thin as gossamer as the hair, reverberates flow, with no trace of stagnation. Han Dynasty unearthed jade and fine phase quote, classical offer of these claims are credible.
"Ming made two" through jade: In the mid-Qing Dynasty appear, there are more applications in the Forbidden City in Beijing, Suzhou gardens and other buildings. Ming made through two jade, is on a flat (or slightly convex) jade sheet, both surfaces of the engraved patterns of different layers, the intermediate layers completely through the opening, is connected to a peripheral edge integrally. Ornamentation hollow, positive and negative phase error, set off each other, subtly strange. Difficult, fine workmanship.
Gold Jade wrong: the use of traditional gold wrong technology, crushed into fine lines in the decoration jade production, and then embedded with gold or silver. Jade subject to wear wrong. Commonly known as "inlaid with gold," in fact "the wrong." In ancient China as "carved jade", "literary brilliance" as the finest craftsmanship, according to the Eastern Han Li Yau and three as Chun saying, "wrong Huang Lou" and "Witch" is also a gold of another name, and so we wrong turn It can be called "literary brilliance." The wrong combination of jade is "carved jade" and "literary brilliance," the development of gold is another wrong process. Jade has a gold production in the jade industry in Beijing and Suzhou.
Nephrite law: the jade softened the law. Jade hard and difficult to hard and difficult carving, with a few pieces of wood available water chestnuts into boiling water for one day Yu, then Sanli alum, toad carved at Three Mile coating, Sunburn dry, and then cover, to make up drugs.
Soft crystal method: the quartz crystal soft law. Crystal hard and difficult carving, available carnea cook, cooked view, can be engraved. But only with copper, iron cooking, is not sand. This method nephrite also.