Beijing Ancient Observatory
Beijing Ancient Observatory is a national key cultural relics protection units, located in the southwest corner of Beijing's Jianguomen overpass, located at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty Ancient Observatory, formerly known as "Secretary rooftop." Destroyed in the war when the capture of Beijing in the early Ming, the remnants of astronomical instruments being shipped to Nanjing saved. Ming orthodox seven years to rebuild this stage, the Ancient Observatory is converted from the Yuan Dynasty capital of the southeast corner of floor made of high-brick building (1442) time. Renamed the "Observatory", and copy a set of instruments, the Ming Dynasty set the stage with a large bronze astronomical instruments armillary sphere, simple instrument, celestial instrument (celestial globe), etc., the audience is Ziwei Hall, room clepsydra, sundial Shadows and other buildings, built sundial, clepsydra and other equipment. Chongzhen years (1629 - 1638) by the Xu Guangqi, by Tian, who has created the ultimate big instrument, armillary sphere hanging flat, flat sundial, waiting clock, binoculars, hourglass and other equipment. During the Qing Dynasty, and renamed "observatory." Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi and Qianlong in favor of Western technology to create a celestial instrument, equatorial theodolite, ecliptic theodolite, horizon through the instrument, the quadrant, Ji limited instrument, chi Heng Fu Chen instrument, altazimuth and other eight copper large astronomical instruments, are metrics used in Europe and astronomy instrument structure. These instruments have French style Louis XIV era, extremely elegant style decoration, still on display in the Ancient Observatory. Revolution later renamed the Central Observatory. Now Beijing Ancient Observatory Beijing has been converted into a museum of ancient astronomical instruments belonging to the Beijing Observatory, continue to play a role in science and science fields.
Ancient Observatory about 14 meters high platform body, table top north to south and 20.4 meters, 23.9 meters from east to west. 8 nisshin provided on astronomical instruments. Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi and Qianlong years, the observatory has added the eight large bronze astronomical instruments are used in European astronomy Metrics and instrument structure. From the Ming orthodox years, from 1929 to the early years of the Ming Zhengtong ended, the Ancient Observatory in nearly 500 years of astronomical observations, is to maintain the existing Ancient Observatory oldest continuous observation, and also to complete construction equipment fully furnished, in the international Prestigious. Nisshin 8 gauge copper in addition to aspects of modeling, floral, craft and so has the Chinese tradition, but in terms of scale, travel form, structure, etc., also reflects after the Renaissance, progress and achievements of large astronomical instruments. They are something to witness history and cultural exchanges. After the founding of New China, Taiwan Howard Johnson handed over to the Beijing Planetarium, is a national key cultural relics protection units.
It is to complete the construction, equipment fine, historic and unique position in the East-West cultural exchanges throughout the world.
Beijing Ancient Observatory called "stargazing" in the Ming Dynasty, stage decoration is a simple instrument, armillary sphere and celestial globe and other large astronomical instruments, the audience has a sundial and the clepsydra furnishings. During the Qing Dynasty Observatory was renamed the "observatory", after the Revolution transformed into the Central Observatory.
Here both at that time in accordance with the large bronze astronomical instruments astronomical instruments since the Yuan Dynasty replication, but also by scientists in the Ming Dynasty, Xu Guangqi and foreign missionaries has designed a new precision instrument manufacturing, showing the results of cultural exchange, is the study of ancient astronomy science achievements important information.
From the Ming orthodox years, to 1929 only, the Beijing Ancient Observatory continuously engaged in astronomical observation for five hundred years, the world's remaining ancient observatory, the oldest maintained a continuous observation of history, but it also to complete construction and instrument fully furnished and prestigious in the world. Manufacture of Qing Dynasty eight large bronze astronomical instruments great shape, attractive appearance, exquisite carving. In addition to aspects of modeling, floral, crafts with Chinese traditional characteristics, but the scale and structure swim table also reflects the Renaissance after the progress and achievements of large astronomical instruments, history witnessed the East-West cultural exchanges. They are not only practical astronomical observation tools, or the unparalleled historical heritage treasures.
Beijing Ancient Observatory is one of the oldest observatory in the world, China is a historical witness the glorious achievements of ancient astronomy, building it to the full, the instrument beautifully preserved, and a long observation in the East-West cultural exchanges in the unique position of historical and famous . Now Beijing Ancient Observatory Beijing has been converted into a museum of ancient astronomical instruments belonging to the Beijing Observatory, continue to play a role in science and science fields.
Ancient Observatory History
Beijing Ancient Observatory built in the Ming orthodox seven years (AD 1442), is one of the oldest observatory in the world, but also the Royal Observatory of China's Ming and Qing dynasties. It is to complete the construction, equipment complete package, a long history and famous. Ancient Observatory about 14 meters high platform body, table top north to south and 20.4 meters, 23.9 meters from east to west. 8 nisshin provided on astronomical instruments. From 1929 to the early years of the Ming Zhengtong ended, the Ancient Observatory in nearly 500 years of astronomical observations, is to maintain the existing Ancient Observatory oldest continuous observation, and also to building a complete instrumentation equipped, prestigious in the world. Nisshin 8 gauge copper in addition to aspects of modeling, floral, craft and so has the Chinese tradition, but in terms of scale, travel form, structure, etc., also reflects after the Renaissance, progress and achievements of large astronomical instruments. They are something to witness history and cultural exchanges. After the founding of New China, Taiwan Howard Johnson handed over to the Beijing Planetarium, is a national key cultural relics protection units.
As early as the Yuan sixteen years (1279), astronomers Wang Xun, etc. Guo Shoujing in this north side of Jianguomen Observatory has established a Division of the roof, the Beijing Ancient Observatory earliest traceable. After the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, to Ming orthodox seven years (1442) built in the Yuan Dynasty city wall on the southeast corner of the site of the Observatory floor, placed the armillary sphere, simple instrument, and other astronomical instruments celestial globe, and build the house of Ziwei and other housing in the city walls, after upgrading sundial Shadows. At this time, the Observatory and its outbuildings group has a considerable size.
After the 1644 establishment of the Qing regime, to change the Observatory for the observatory, and receive advice Schall in favor of the European method of calculating the astronomical almanac. 1669-1674 year mandate by the Kang Xi Emperor, Nan Huairen design and supervision of the six new astronomical instruments: theodolite equator, ecliptic theodolite, horizon by instrument, the quadrant, discipline and limited instrument celestial instrument. Kangxi 50 years (1715) Li Ji An altazimuth design and manufacture. Nine years of Qianlong (1744), Emperor Qianlong ordered the armillary sphere in accordance with Chinese tradition of recycling a new instrument, named Fu Chen Heng-chi instrument. So far, we have seen today are equipped eight ancient instrument is completed.
Power Allied Forces invaded Beijing in 1900, Germany and France invaders had put eight armillary sphere instrument, along with the audience, Jane instrument equally, each stole five. French instrument will be transported to the French Embassy, after the return in 1902. Germany will be transported to the Potsdam palace instruments on display, after World War I, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, in shipments in 1921 to return home, resettle in the observatory.
After the Revolution in 1911, changed its name to the Central Observatory Observatory, 1927, after the Purple Mountain Observatory preparation, Ancient Observatory no longer be observational studies, instead, National Museum of Astronomy in 1929. 1931 "September 18" Incident, the Japanese invaders advancing Beijing, for the protection of cultural relics, will be placed in the audience armillary sphere, simple instrument, such as seven instruments delivered clepsydra Nanjing. This instrument 7 are now on display in the Purple Mountain Observatory  and in Nanjing Museum.
After liberation, the Beijing Ancient Observatory in 1982 was listed as national cultural heritage, and in 1983 re-opened. In foreign countries enjoy a high reputation. Heads of governments of many countries, senior officials and fellow scientists such as British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prime Minister of Belgium V Starr, and so have come to visit.
Ancient Observatory Exhibition
Time calendar : Beijing Ancient Observatory, "Chinese ancient astronomy Exhibition" and "Time Calendar" section introduces the formation and development of major research achievements of our time calendar. The ancient calendar of the more special, mostly lunisolar calendar, when the ancient calendar to six clear calendar constitution, a total of 102 kinds. Of which only two pure Gregorian calendar, before and after going five more significant calendar reforms. Exhibition using text and captions means calendar overview describes the different dynasties in China. At the same time, it exhibited some of the ancient use of measuring time, such as sundials, sundial and so on. At the same time, there are also several aircraft moved from the original pendulum clock in modern astronomy Shanghai Xu Jiahui Observatory and the Nanjing Purple Mountain Observatory.
Observatory Sky Pavilion notebook: Beijing Ancient Observatory, "Chinese ancient astronomy Exhibition" and "Sky notes" section introduces some of the major historical events and achievements of ancient astronomical observation in China. For example: in 5000 BC "Yangshao" dawenkou unearthed color Taotian Wen pattern, Dunhuang star chart eighth century, as well as our traditional three enclosures Ershibasu days zoning and so on. At the same time, the exhibition also introduces a number of astronomical research in the ancient China: like the study of sunspots, Halley's comet, supernova, and the like. Exhibition based on the audience to fully understand the astronomical knowledge of ancient China, the use of means of showcasing the rich, and a considerable number of instances model. The exhibition features many years, praised by domestic and foreign audiences, but also as an education base for young people year-round extracurricular activities.
Lingtai instrument like: Beijing Ancient Observatory, "Chinese ancient astronomy Exhibition" and "Lingtai instrument like a" major part of the history and development of China's major study of ancient observatory instruments made a more general description. Exhibition performance from the start site of the Western Han Chinese astronomy astronomical research institutions in the development process and the armillary sphere and simple instrument, such as a famous ancient Chinese astronomical instruments until the Beijing Ancient Observatory. Exhibitions easy to understand, entertaining, using a large number of examples of models and photos, and also exhibited a bronze scale model of ancient astronomical instrument first developed my desk. Since the exhibition on display welcomed visitors and astronomy enthusiasts.
Ancient Observatory Instrument
Ming system using the armillary, simple device, equipment and other large objects in the Ming Dynasty, Observatory. Qing Kang Xi eight years (1669), observatory instruments Belgian Jesuit missionary Nan Huairen Feng Emperor Kangxi's life, on the basis of previous designs six new astronomical instrument, made to Kang Xi years, namely, : theodolite equator, ecliptic theodolite, astronomical instrument, by instrument horizon, horizon instrument latitude, Ji limit instrument. After the new device is made, the instrument will all shift Ming put the audience, the content with fresh six instrument table, were observed. Kangxi 50 years (1715), the French Jesuit missionary Ji Li-An altazimuth design content with causing the stage, this aircraft is the instrument by instrument horizon, horizon weft synthetic instrument, more convenient to use. But when producer Ji Li-An instrument plane, trying to shift the audience remains of the Yuan and Ming ancient instrument purported use of scrap copper, fortunately it was later discovered and Zou Ming court ordered a ban, it retains the prescribed system armillary sphere, simple instrument, astronomical instrument three ( Unfortunately, after the Revolution, celestial instrument has disappeared). It can be said that the Beijing Ancient Observatory doom a large ancient instrument.
According to historical records, the Qianlong Emperor Qianlong nine years (AD 1744) on October 27 to visit the observatory, over the concept after astronomical instruments that structure armillary sphere made of late antiquity, scoring system should from now on. Then, when the person concerned Astronomical brainstorming design and manufacture of "chi Heng Fu Chen instrument" manufacturing schedule for ten years. This frame structure of the instrument, substantially similar to armillary of ancient Chinese Han and Tang been made, the difference is canceled in the horizon armillary ecliptic ring and ring, in the same stage when the scribing of the other seven instruments, with a circumferential 360. And ninety-six replace the ancient Chinese engraving 365.25. And Best engraving. "Heng-Fu Chen-chi instrument" is the last piece of large-scale astronomical instrument made in the Qing Dynasty, it weighs more than five tons, tall and majestic, delicate carvings, except as an instrument in the Sky Observatory, is a fine arts and crafts .
Chen Fu-chi horizontal instrument : on display at the Beijing Ancient Observatory north of the eastern end. Instrument weight 5145 kg, 3.379 m-high. Nine years of Qianlong (AD 1744) Emperor during his inspection Observatory, astronomical instruments are seen on stage construction of the West, with the ordered structure according to the traditional Chinese armillary sphere accounts for the construction of an instrument. Design and manufacture of the same year, after a decade of construction period. Qianlong nineteen years (AD 1754) made. Instrument south engraved with "Emperor Qianlong instrument Chen Fu-chi cross JiaZi made" with both Chinese and Manchu. Instrument into triple: a heavy outermost meridian called double ring, a double circle represents a radial gap; monocyclic equatorial meridional intersecting double circle. Meridian lower half of the seat support of cloud points ring, coaxial with north and south poles. An intermediate layer composed by the connection of the north and south poles and equator meridional travel spin equator. Is consistent in the innermost bipolar double shaft ascension circle, its upper end a cross hair, so that more accurate observation. Chen Fu-chi horizontal instrument is the last Qing Dynasty made a large copper instrument, in terms of metallurgy manufacture or engraving way, have reflected the level of development. The 1900 instrument was the German invaders Luezhi Berlin, the return of our country in 1921, reinstalled on the Beijing Ancient Observatory.
Ji limit instrument: on display in Beijing Ancient Observatory south side, adjacent to the equatorial theodolite. Made in Kang Xi eight years to 12 years (AD 1669-1673), by Belgian missionary Nan Huairen producer in China. Meter weight 802 kg, 3.274 meters-high. Began in the Qing Dynasty in China such devices. The main feature is a 60-degree arc and a, the dry end of a handle, the handle end has a small loop for hooking the trolley (trolley has been lost), a horizontal axis extending stem tip, transverse to hang peep ( original cross-peep has been lost, endoscopic instrument is now in the horizontal with the rear). position slightly below the horizontal axis, a vertical left and right cartridge, to help measure the degree arc to .60 as clouds decorated, back with pivot, height can be adjusted, with the semicircular gears to the support, and also provided with a handle for rotating the wheel, can be observed when the left and right down, below its pillar, seat post is inserted into a circular wound in Long ,, rotatable Quartet the main instrument used to measure the angular distance between two stars within 60 degrees. in 1900 Germany was the aggressor Luezhi Germany, in 1921 and resettled in the ancient Observatory.
Ecliptic theodolite: on display at the southwest corner of Ancient Observatory table top made in Beijing Kang Xi eight years to 12 years (AD 1669-1673), by Belgian missionary Nan Huairen producer instrument weight 2752 kg, 3.492 meters-high... a first aircraft coordinate system independent of the ecliptic observation instrument. erecting the outer meridian, copper poles An axis, with semi-circular fit, it is fixed. inside of the extreme ring, connected to the polar axis. yellow pole pitch 90, the transverse ecliptic ring, and the ultimate coil phases orthogonal intersection two turns near the summer solstice as those Arctic, Antarctic were close to the winter solstice. innermost ring through the ecliptic, copper penetration shaft to Huang Daonan Arctic. the support is a meridian cloud semicircular seat, with two opposite Regal under the seat support, the cross beams then cross obliquely. this is mainly used for measuring the celestial longitude and latitude and ecliptic measured round solar terms. Since China's ancient astronomers ecliptic coordinate system is not very great importance, therefore, after the instrument is made to use less.
Altazimuth: on display at the Beijing Ancient Observatory table top position on the south side of the median. Kang Xi system in 52 years - 54 years (AD 1713-1715), by Jesuit missionaries in China of German discipline is responsible for security reason Duzao. 7,368 kg heavy instrument, instrument 4.125 m high. This instrument was set horizon and instrument configuration and function of the quadrant in one, except that the quadrant arc upwards downstream of the meter without the nip method, the use of run tables at both ends of the opening and peek hole method, the decoration is different to the previous two instruments, it is the only ancient Observatory adoption of Western-style Art Deco French Renaissance astronomical instruments. reduces errors due to two instruments to measure brought about by the use. in 1900, the instrument and the other four meter has been Luezhi within the French Embassy, after public pressure forced the return of our country in 1902 and today we can still see clearly the aggressor in the left windshield cowl bullet holes.
By horizon instrument: on display at the Beijing Ancient Observatory station roof on the south side, east of the ecliptic theodolite, made in Kang Xi eight years to 12 years (AD 1669-1673), the instrument weight 1811 kg, 3.201 meters high by the instrument of Belgium in China. missioner Nan Huairen producer. this instrument is subject horizon circle, the circle with diameter things, for the intermediate disk, the support pillar of the cloud. dragon pillars and four corners with three fine copper pillar supporting a casting, the following is a cross cross-beams, for adjusting stud level stuff column, and two vertical columns, two dragon winds up along the column, a top of the projecting pawl, holding together a fireball, globe represents zenith, the central ring into a vertical horizon. Fangxiang an vertical line along the top of the finger means on one day geocentric hollow stand table, which can be rotated 360 degrees, the lower end is provided with a table stand and its vertical cross-table which and long foreign economic horizon is flush ring, flat on the horizon ring hollow at the table stand, each provided with a vertical pillar, the top of the column has a vertical hole, on both sides next to a through-hole, and the vertical communication holes, connected by two vertical uprights, upper vertical sides of the table, two cartridge-flat, small column was two oblique lead ends relative to the cross-table When observed, the test objects at both ends of the wire cross-table, and a central vertical plane on, can fix longitude horizon. This instrument had been Luezhi 1900 Berlin 20 years German invaders, 1921 in resettlement in the ancient Observatory.
Equatorial Theodolite: on display at the Beijing Ancient Observatory south of the eastern end of the table top is made in Kang Xi eight years to 12 years (AD 1669-1673), by Belgian missionary Nan Huairen producer in China meter weight 2720 kg, Miriam. 3.380 m tall. outermost meridian is, north and south poles of the security of coaxial, with semicircular fit, it is fixed. ninety degrees from the position of the poles, transverse equatorial circle, intersect with the meridian, extending from the south pole of the two quadrants for supporting the arc equator equatorial circle is rotatable through a very meridional ---- ascension circle 360 degrees about the polar axis. through a central axis between the poles have cross-table safety. instruments has a semicircular lower cloud base, used to support the meridian, it has a central hole, used to hold down the ball. the instrument is an instrument of ancient astronomical observations are often used, there are fourteen purposes, mainly for true sun and celestial right ascension and declination. The instrument had been Luezhi 1900 French invaders in the French Embassy, after forced by world opinion, the return of our country in 1902 and re-install the original position.
Astronomical instruments: on display at the west side of Beijing Ancient Observatory in the middle of the table top. Made in Kang Xi eight years to 12 years (AD 1669-1673), by Belgian missionary Nan Huairen producer in China. Instrument weight 3850 kg, 2.735 m-high. This instrument with copper balls having a diameter of six feet representative of the celestial sphere, the sphere sizes cloth out of gold plated copper star 1,876, 282 and put them into star officer. Engraved sphere equator, the vertical axis with the steel. Copper ball outside the north-south meridian is upright, its highest point represents the zenith of copper fireball. Spherical horizon is parallel with the horizon ring, holding the four columns stand on the base circle horizon. The device 60 has a number of uses, but it is used mostly in terms of days and demonstrates the ecliptic, and the equatorial horizon three coordinate system, month, depending on the position of the stars on the celestial sphere, and the like. The instrument had been Luezhi Berlin 1900 German invaders in 1921 was re-seated on the Beijing Ancient Observatory, it has also left the sphere of the invaders lay bullet.
Quadrant: also known as Wei horizon instrument, on display at the northwest corner of Beijing Ancient Observatory table top. Made in Kang Xi eight years to 12 years (AD 1669-1673), by Belgian missionary Nan Huairen producer in China. Instrument weight 2483 kg, 3.611 m-high. The main components are a 90-degree quadrant ring, the intermediate ring to the dragon clouds as a decoration. Quadrant vertical edge of the ring refers to the zenith, the center of the earth means, transverse edge parallel to the horizon , anyway sides intersect at the center. The middle of the back of the instrument is the number of axes, ends of the shaft is round, quadrant ring is fixed on the number line, can 360 degree rotation. Things have a column, the column upper end, a lower end contacting the cross member has a central circular hole for mounting the beam chisel vertical axis. Quadrant center ring, projecting a horizontal axis, which horizontal hang peep peep horizontal lower end erect and the rear surface is provided with the sub-clamp screw (now broken), next to travel table (which has been lost). This is mainly used for determination of objects on the horizon or zenith. In 1900 France was the aggressor Luezhi within the French Embassy, 1902 the return of our country, resettlement in the Ancient Observatory.
Tickets: $ 10, half-price student ID 5 yuan;
Opening hours: two closed one day a week, open daily from 9: 00-11: 30; 1 pm: 00-4: 30
Tour Zhou Bian: Ritan Park, Chang'an Grand Theater, Silk Street, COFCO Plaza
Address: Dongcheng District, Beijing Jian Guo Men Nei Avenue;
Getting There: Take 1,8,9,20,43,44,57 bus to Jianguomen and get off to; or to Jianguomen subway station to get off.