Beijing souvenirs: Carved lacquer crafts
Beijing carved lacquer and lacquer ware in general different. Said lacquer general, the main technique of expression is coated on the lacquer or the lacquer apply a layer of paint on the stencil after lacquer, or a paint color is also bordered on some painted pattern or design etc., varieties of products The main indoor furnishings. Beijing carved lacquer is not, it is known for carving. Coated on the lacquer layer is several tens to several hundreds lacquer layer, a thickness of 15 to 25 mm, and then carving knife, so called "lacquer." In the history books lacquer can be called "red tick", which is customary, said the law, because in ancient lacquer products, mainly red and green color-based.
Lacquer process, the natural paint is applied in a predetermined thickness on the tread, a knife on a plane and then the lacquer piled carved techniques. Due to the different colors, also "red tick" "tick black", "tick color" and "tick rhinoceros" and other different names. Beijing carved lacquer modeling solemn Gu Pu, exquisite ornamentation elegant, smooth color, shape and elegant, and there is moisture, heat, acid and alkali, no distortion, no deterioration of characteristics. Carved lacquer technique is an important category of Chinese lacquer craft, the essence of Beijing is one of the traditional arts and crafts. It reflects the skill of Arts and Crafts home in our country and ingenuity, is a treasure of traditional Chinese technology.
- Beijing carved lacquer -
Beijing carved lacquer history
Carved lacquer craft and other traditional arts, has its own development and evolution of style. Historical records, Beijing carved lacquer began in the Tang Dynasty, flourished in the Song, Yuan, Sheng Yu Ming and Qing. It is a history book of the only remaining paint, Ming Dynasty painter Huang to the name, Yang Ming made the comment, "painted ornaments recorded" record: My Tang Dynasty have been "carved red" production, blade sharp, and Gu Pu can be reward. At that time, "carved red" is the main variety. In addition, black tick, tick yellow, and green tick, lacquer belong to the category, and only the applied color expression method are different.
Song and Yuan Dynasties
Song, Yuan carved lacquer technique, based on the Tang Dynasty has made significant progress, and gradually form a knife hidden front does not reveal, mill workers sleek style. Song lacquer kind rarely leave the world, not easy to see. Yuan Dynasty famous painter Zhang Cheng, Yang Mao two works, our existing collection. Their work is representative of the Yuan Dynasty lacquered style, and has a very profound impact on future generations carved lacquer arts. Song, Yuan and lacquer is typically silver tin tire tread, the cartridge main varieties. Smart blade, blade smooth, mostly floral patterns (ie, not carved floral brocade pattern) "death flower", rich in decorative taste, gives a vigorous Gu Pu impression.
To the Ming Dynasty, carved lacquer technique developed rapidly, is the art of lacquer mature period, and Ming Yongle, Xuande two world as height. Nade was carved lacquer, are from generation to generation, such as Zhang Cheng's son Zhang Degang, Yang Mao's descendants Yang Xun, have become highly skilled craftsman. Ming Dynasty rulers in order to pleasure, between Yu Ming Yongle in Beijing with orchard plant, was the manufacture of large-scale government-run handicraft workshop palace carved lacquer crafts, produce handicrafts for the court to use a large number of production techniques produced in succession Song, yuan on the basis of style, has a new improved. Then lacquer products, is still red more Zhu Hong with violet, steady calm. Variety also the case for a multi-disk, followed by the cartridge; more small pieces, less large. Tire tread system places wood, tin tire mainly, but also gold and silver tires. In terms of design, landscapes, flowers, birds and animals of many subjects, which quite different from the Yuan Dynasty flowers, Kam practices, its blade smooth, clear hidden front, blade changes than the Song and Yuan dynasties to be more, carving works fine, vivid performance. During this period the outstanding works are treasured in the Imperial Palace in Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing Museum.
Qing Dynasty carved lacquer handicrafts, mostly in Qianlong and Jiaqing in the system. In the Qianlong period, due to the emperor himself like lacquer products, therefore, strongly advocated the production, lacquer varieties palace used by many, this will make carved lacquer production has experienced unprecedented prosperity in the Qianlong period. Then lacquer products, variety, large screens, tables and chairs, small-cap, small boxes, vials, canisters there. Wood tires, tin-based tire, also born out of, modeling exquisite, varied colors also increased, and there are inlaid with jade bonded products. Design aspects, in addition to flowers and birds, figures, began to have a variety of auspicious patterns. Patterning process on the dense multi-level, multi-known, and the Ming Dynasty is different is not pay attention mill workers, however, have rigorous, exquisite, gorgeous characteristic; floral theme as much, have to wear branches had stems, natural and flexible, distinct levels, strong stereoscopic features.
Republic of China
Republic of China, Beijing carved lacquer began to have a relatively large development. Between 1920 and 1934, carved lacquerware workshop to develop dozens of, mostly in Chongwenmen, the front door and the door Chaoyang area. Employing over 500 people. Product modeling generous, tire type rules, paint color bright, fine carving, brocade diverse known. At that time a representative of a large workshop is still "following the ancient vegetarian." "Following the ancient Zhai" development is from recruit the first apprentice began, and then they recruit the second, the third batch of apprentice. The first apprentice is "permanent" character generation, the second batch of the "treasure" character generation, the third installment of the "increase" Generation name. Because "Following the ancient vegetarian" business is booming, they have developed some other name, such as "Decheng lacquer bureau", "and lacquer bureau" and so on, and sometimes engaged in lacquer workshop as much as many as fifty or sixty, Germany to lacquer bureau "specialized production of fake goods, the lacquer craft more enriched.
Technology and feature of Beijing lacquered
The main processes are carved lacquer, main raw material for paint, lacquer is named. Beijing carved lacquer metallic and non-metallic tire tread, the former is the enamel, the latter in the paint. The paint layer by layer coating product, coat, then dry coat, two coats of a day. Dozens were less coating layer, multi-layer who Sanwubaiwan, then with a knife ghostwriter, according to the draft design plan relief patterns, carved out landscapes, flowers, figures and so on. The lacquer is used mainly Zhu Hong, yellow, green, black, etc. do background, into red tick (Zhu stack), tick yellow, green tick, tick color, tick rhinoceros crafts. Engraving process is very complex, to a tread made through, bluing, as a substrate, the paint, carving, polishing more than 10 processes, each process skill requirements are very high.
Beijing carved lacquer process is very complex, to go through the design, manufacture tires, paint, sample description, carving, polishing more than 10 processes, each process skill requirements are very high. Where the sculpture is the most important step. Carving knife, carving in the past mostly flat, are now a lot of relief, openwork carving, three-dimensional sculpture and so on. Lacquer color is also very particular about the past only black, red, yellow, green, 4 colors, now grown to more than 20 kinds of white, apricot, tea, red, pink and so on. Each work is also developing a single color from the past to the present variety of trapping. These products are resistant to moisture, heat, acid and alkali, no distortion, no deterioration of the characteristics, loved by the people.
The main raw material for manufacturing lacquer paint lacquer is big, also known as lacquer, soil paint, lacquer, Chinese lacquer, is excised from the lacquer tree sap down grayish white liquid, sumac wild, wide growing area in China. After drying lacquer having excellent characteristics of natural heat, acid, alkali, moisture resistant, abrasion and the like; dry flavor and indium having a very soft sheen, it appears to run out through the body. Processed on the basis of the original lacquer can be made of various paint lacquer required.
Net lacquer: is obtained after purification original lacquer physical properties.
Add tide paint: adding a certain percentage of the net lacquer in water, add moisture to evaporate in the original lacquer tapping, transportation, storage process, keep the lacquer original chemical composition, stable performance lacquer unchanged such a paint can be used to increase the influx of modulation modulation paint and other gray paint.
Paint Color: is added to cover various chemical paint pigment, uniformly stirring RESEARCH pressure from the various paint colors. Former Beijing carved lacquer factory can modulate nearly a hundred different shades of color paint. Traditionally red, yellow, green, black, mainly in engraving engraved thereon are referred to as red tick, tick yellow, green tick, tick black, there is another tick rhino, tick color.
Back-gloss paint: also known as push light paint, paint pigment, paint is translucent. In an amount less lacquer products, mainly in the secondary site is not decorated at relief, commonly known as "do lining."
Golden Foot paint: also known as the plastic, muddy gold lacquer, gold lacquer paste, varnish. Fast Net amount proportional plus lacquer dry cooked tung oil, mix well. Mainly used to paste gold, silver foil, gold and silver powder.
King bladder: also known as bladder paint, paint glue. The net modulation lacquer white flour certain proportion, mainly used to produce the womb, a paste, a cloth, or used with an adhesive.