Millennium Opera Theater centuries old Beijing Jinghua Rhyme
Whether antique, bright colors, unique style of the old theater, or singing, do, read, play aspects have been self into opera art system, are one of our thousands of years of profound history and culture in miniature. And find that once a seat of the old opera house, recalling past fame of years, exposure to the historic Old Theater Lane, do not bother to see them, tea, or fancier leisurely enjoyment, will let you have a stretch a sense of brilliance, as if that had Jinghua Rhyme and curl from.
Millennium Opera, Centennial Theater
Foreigners like the Chinese opera called china opera (Chinese opera), like, just like the previous Spring Festival Gala and foreign large-scale performances can not always show the same lack of Peking Opera, Peking Opera, but the two hundred years of history of Chinese drama varieties, on stage performances still exudes its Health net at the end ugly charm.
People first arrived in Beijing, will always find ways to listen to Beijing Accent field of opera, tentatively considered a taste of what it once Jinghua Rhyme. Hu then accompanied by the sound board in the opera, those old relics belonging to the old Beijing, Qu Liyuan those words, in the busy city of skyscrapers of modern international metropolis, people are still worried about distant places, cherishing the memory. Those who have disappeared and still stick to the theater, and thus moving with a touch of red makeup. In one kind of nostalgic feeling of the moment is becoming, more and more people want the process of modernization in the city, looking for the old Pearl. In recent years, Beijing style culture is particularly attract foreign tourists, a native of Peking Opera in China, almost 5,000 years of Chinese ancient Wen Ming of a business card, the international art and cultural exchanges, to attract more eyeballs. In modern society, it means having to get the attention of economic value. Ancient culture of our ancestors left behind, eventually crossing the dusty years of vicissitudes, will be turned into a history of deposition time charm, Phoenix Nirvana (on behalf of the word, because the computer is no such word coinage), lease of life.
1. From the terrace to the theater - China show the evolution of workplace
China's venues and Chinese opera attendant, has a long history of evolution, the various stages of the title is different. Ancient people worship singing and dancing, can also be seen as the earliest origins of Chinese opera. With the development of the times, these once in a ritual dance of the people, began a professional career, to become China's first artist. Therefore, the ancient Chinese dance artists original venues, almost all use of natural terrain. Later, the earth began to table, that is, without the roof open-air stage, known as the "terrace", spectators crowd in four weeks. So now, folk still called "troupes" of informal performances by those spontaneous formation, which is quite historical origins.
To the Western Han Dynasty, with the auditorium building "Look shed." Look studio audience watch condescending, non-permanent outdoor venues. Zhang Heng "two Beijing Fu", there has to watch acrobatics and look at the drawing studio. Tang Dynasty is the formative period of Chinese opera, the actors begin construction of the district, so there is a "music studio." Le shed with wood masonry construction, plus a stage roof, designed and manufactured all very fine, but not the fixed venues, but had vaguely shaped. To the Tang Dynasty, the temple began to "play games", which is later "Taiwan temple" predecessor.
Song Yuan dynasties Chinese opera maturity period, then began immobilized venues "GouLan" fixed centralized venues called "House GouLan." GouLan is to look at the shed, shed and patio Trinity music, there are stage, backstage, to see seats and the House of God. For ease of viewing, low to high before the audience, it is all made of wood and have begun to take shape theater. However, due to the railings are made of wood structure, easy to collapse, fire, to the Ming Dynasty began to decline, replaced all over the inside and outside of the city "tea." Initially, no tea and ad hoc stage, just before doing field seats, and later began a large tea plantation special stage for performances purposes, to the Qing Dynasty more prevalent. This is related to Beijingers love tea habit. There was no "tickets" tea to listen to opera pay only "tea capital", the actual price is drama. After the mid-Qing Beijing's tea has considerable size, with the emblem of the four classes in Beijing and the formation and development of Peking opera, they will not be tea-based, but mainly to listen to the opera, the theater was renamed the tea also will be.
In time, many inside the theater have to be modified, added a stage curtain, the audience gradually changed to semi-chair, projecting from the front of the proscenium stage, instead of the square is open on three sides of the old stage, and added lighting. After the 1920s, "Opera House" in the title mostly to "theater."
2. Hatchback tripled railing column - shape of the pattern of the old Opera House
Today, the theater and its old theater very different, they are generally the street, in front of a vertical wooden single door arch, square forehead inscribed park name, the top of a small ridge roof, to prevent the sun and rain. Stage in the theater square, brick, wooden table four corners, two columns are hung stage couplet stage has carved front fence, top fence with wood or Lotus lion as sand, at the top stage Chuihua down with a railing and railing following the relative said, the audience is a long table seating bench. Stage seating on three sides, three sides property inspection.
Front seats with vertical stage play put downstairs, listening to opera people sitting face to face tea to listen to opera, to see the play was turned sideways. Seats on both sides of the stage is placed obliquely, at an acute angle to the stage, is facing the viewer, need theater turned sideways. Since then, tea can also be seen at that time, the restaurant is a tea-based, supplemented by the theater, so in the past generally say "listen to opera", but rarely say "theater." The seating area also have their own name, downstairs front called "stalls", called on both sides of the stage downstairs "hatchback", with high wooden bench against the wall at the back of the hatchback, called the "Great Wall"; upstairs called "gallery" in front of the "box", called "the floor" on both sides of the upstairs stage. After the theater can only see the back of the building, so the building free of charge, often insiders relatives theater place.
Old former the theater there is a special place, is in the middle of the stage opposite the downstairs back with a "snap seat." Suppress seat features a rectangular table, there stands a sign on the table, the words "repression seats," the words above. There is also a small wooden stand on the table, the insert keep everyone happy. This is to maintain law and order and set up the garden, open play after heavily armed soldiers seated, zoo offer refreshments, holidays gave a red envelope, the official in order to take care of him.
This pattern of old to the theater of the Republic of China was gradually broken, and by extension building has been extended to the 1920s.
The early Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, also posted outside the gates of the theater poster, write a troupe, a performance by actors, but there is no specific repertoire above, staged plays it all depends on what props. Every day a representative props in the play in the theater placed outside the gate, fans are instinctively main drama of the day. Daily playbill, initially printed on yellow paper, woodcut, low fees. Later he changed to stone printed on pink paper. The playbill is the stereotype emerged after the 1920s.
The theater performances of the Qing Dynasty long time, up to 10 to 12 hours, do not show night scenes. "Tea Capital" how not to play fixing prices, but by the seat of fixing prices. In addition to supplying tea, there are other payment snacks (black and white melon seeds, peanuts and other small fry salt) installed in a small dish. But at the time of charge, charge only before and after the finale (down two) begins. "Throw the hot towel" is a major feature of the theater of old Beijing, but also learned the child. The waiter heated towel thrown from the air the audience, the moment is still throwing the mouth shouting: "! Towel to put myself" throw very accurately, ready to receive tips, much as you want, never mind.
The capital city of the Qing Dynasty in the drama is prohibited to sell, so the theater are outside the city. When the mid-Qing Dynasty, the theater also prohibits women to listen to opera. "Clean barnyard class notes" and reads:. "Imperial Opera House to the non-Virgo women want the listener will discover the church when will the other women take the table before they can be a go, then abstinence who are still hesitant too." To Guangxu Dynasty, the female audience began to appear. This is the "Boxer Indemnity" staged "obligation drama" began. "Obligation to play" lifting the ban, but to separate men and women, women seated upstairs. After the Revolution, before breaking down the boundaries between men and women. Influx of women into the theater. Also contributed to the development of Beijing Opera. Peking Opera is among the last line of the main raw corner, join the audience of women, once the line is the life-line to equal shares.
With the collapse of China's last dynasty, the pattern of the theater has changed. In the first year the construction of the first stage (located well outside the front door Willow streets north), the first to break the old pattern of the theater. The audience into a seat cross bar platoon wooden chairs. Stage is elliptical, with a central station artificial turret, and the first use of the curtain. Then, the new enlightened foreign theater theater imitation shape, auditorium rows of single-seat, and began to implement condemnation. This wind opened, many of the old Opera House also followed suit alterations. And wide floor, Guangde House and Sam Kyung Park was the latest change.